Resistance to Change

Sources of resistance to change are either in the individual or the organization (Robbins & Judge, 2013). In the individual, their locus is in the force of habit, security considerations, economic factors, fear of the unknown, selective perception and ego. In the organization, their locus is in structural inertia, inappropriate organizational culture, limited focus of […]

The Communication Process

Various models have been developed to explain the communication process. Notably, the Shannon-Weaver Model, Berlo’s Sender-Message-Channel-Receiver model, Schramm’s Model and Helical Model. The Communication Process Explained via Models The various models of communication present communication as either linear, interactive of transactional. The Shannon-Weaver Model and Berlo’s Model take communication as a linear process hence their […]

Sources of Organizational Conflict

The sources of organizational conflict can be summarized into 4 major categories, namely: 1.People attributes e.g., personalities, values, attitudes & behavior 2.Organizational attributes e.g., structure, processes, system & culture 3.Job attributes e.g., task elements, needs and methods 4.Environmental attributes e.g., competition, economic, social, regulatory and political People Attributes as Sources of Organizational Conflict People attributes […]

Change Management Models

Organizational change is an ever-present organizational imperative for survival today. Indeed, if organizations don’t plan for change, they will be forced to change! What change management models are there for organizations to choose from? Let us review some of the change management models here. Six Top Change Management Models We will briefly review the following […]

Key to Logical Structure in Writing

The key to logical structure in writing is ensuring that the text has the following components: Beginning: Attention grabbing and captivating  e.g., amazing fact or statistic; fascinating question. Body or middle part: statement of position or argument Ending: Final point or statement or call to action e.g., considering the above, we propose … We look […]

4-Ps of the Marketing Mix

The 4-ps of the marketing mix are a foundational tool and model in marketing strategy development for businesses. They are a set of marketing tools that marketing people and businesses use to pursue marketing objectives. The 4-ps are product, price, place, and promotion (also known as the Marketing Principles). The 4-Ps model now extends to the […]